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ADDIE and ITIP – Two Sides of the Same Coin?

Having come up through the K-12 ranks in education, my course design background has been, until recently, almost entirely based upon face-to-face educational theory models like Madeline Hunter’s ITIP and Grant Wiggin’s Understanding by Design (UBD). These methods of course design and lesson planning have served me well, even as I transitioned to hybrid teaching and, finally, fully online.

Now, as my teaching (and OpenPhD studying) has branched out into online professional development and educational technology, I am working with many trainers, corporate instructional designers, as well as teachers, and I’ve repeatedly been exposed to the ADDIE model used by instructional systems designers. At first glance, ITIP and ADDIE appear to be different models for different purposes, but the more I compare and use them – the more they seem two sides of the same coin.

ITIP

1. (Learning Objective) Select an objective at an appropriate level of difficulty and complexity, as determined through a task analysis, diagnostic testing, and/or congruence with Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy.
2. (Anticipatory Set) Motivate instruction by focusing the learning task, its importance, or the prior knowledge/experience of the learners.
3. State the lesson objective(s) to the students.
4. (Input) Identify and teach main concepts and skills, emphasizing clear explanations, frequent use of examples and/or diagrams, and invite active student participation.(Includes Modeling).
>5. Check for understanding by observing and interpreting student reactions (active interest, boredom) and by frequent formative evaluations with immediate feedback. Adjust instruction as needed and reteach if necessary.(Can be Closure at the end of lesson as well).
6. Provide guided practice following instruction by having students answer questions, discuss with one another, demonstrate skills, or solve problems. Give immediate feedback and reteach if necessary.
7. Assign independent practice to solidify skills and knowledge when students have demonstrated understanding.

 

When designing lessons, the teacher needs to consider the seven elements in a certain order since each element is derived from and has a relationship to previous elements. Also a decision must be made about inclusion or exclusion of each element in the final design–NOT ALL ELEMENTS WILL BE INCLUDED IN EVERY LESSON. It may take several lessons before students are ready for guided and/or independent practice. When this design framework is implemented in teaching, the sequence of the elements a teacher includes is determined by his/her professional judgment.

“Planning for Effective Instruction: Lesson Design” in Enhancing Teaching by Madeline Hunter, 1994, pp. 87-95.

 

ADDIE

I found this simple explanation of ADDIE to be most useful in comparison. The five phases of ADDIE are as follows – with the ITIP comparable added in blue:

Analysis

  • During analysis, the designer identifies the learning problem, the goals and objectives, the audience’s needs, existing knowledge, and any other relevant characteristics. Analysis also considers the learning environment, any constraints, the delivery options, and the timeline for the project.

1. (Learning Objective) Select an objective at an appropriate level of difficulty and complexity, as determined through a task analysis, diagnostic testing, and/or congruence with Bloom’s cognitive taxonomy.

2. (Anticipatory Set) Motivate instruction by focusing the learning task, its importance, or the prior knowledge/experience of the learners.

Design

  • A systematic process of specifying learning objectives. Detailed storyboards and prototypes are often made, and the look and feel, graphic design, user-interface and content is determined here.

Development

  • The actual creation (production) of the content and learning materials based on the Design phase.

Implementation

  • During implementation, the plan is put into action and a procedure for training the learner and teacher is developed. Materials are delivered or distributed to the student group. After delivery, the effectiveness of the training materials is evaluated.

3. State the lesson objective(s) to the students.

4. (Input) Identify and teach main concepts and skills, emphasizing clear explanations, frequent use of examples and/or diagrams, and invite active student participation. (Includes Modeling).

6. Provide guided practice following instruction by having students answer questions, discuss with one another, demonstrate skills, or solve problems. Give immediate feedback and reteach if necessary.

7. Assign independent practice to solidify skills and knowledge when students have demonstrated understanding.

Evaluation

  • This phase consists of (1) formative and (2) summative evaluation. Formative evaluation is present in each stage of the ADDIE process. Summative evaluation consists of tests designed for criterion-related referenced items and providing opportunities for feedback from the users. Revisions are made as necessary.

5. Check for understanding by observing and interpreting student reactions (active interest, boredom) and by frequent formative evaluations with immediate feedback. Adjust instruction as needed and reteach if necessary (can be Closure at the end of lesson as well).

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As I see it, the real differences between ADDIE and ITIP are 1)semantics and 2) a slight shift in focus. ITIP’s focus is on the instruction and ADDIE’s is more on design. While a designer (course or training) could use ADDIE to create the training/lesson, ITIP can be used like an outline to actually teach the course/training. These models are more complementary than competing, and online course developers, trainers, OER authors, should look into both models to better improve their teaching and opportunities for student engagement and learning – face-to-face or online.

As always, I look forward to your perspectives and commentary!


 
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Posted by on February 9, 2010 in Teaching Online, Year One

 

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